The devs haven't released a formula, but one thing that can come into play that not everyone realizes is that guild bonuses have a huge impact. For example, when I moved from a top guild to a casual guild, my 3 trophy matchups went from an average of about 45 points to close to 60 (with a maximum of 66).
I'm on PS4, so I don't know which players or guilds are represented on your screenshot, but if one is in a more casual guild, there can be more potential points available. Obviously, no one can tell whether people are taking 1, 2 or 3 trophy matchups and that tends to be the biggest difference maker.
The casual PVP bug might be influencing the 2nd player's stats as well. If they put up an 'easy' PVP defence (like 4x Sacrifice), people might be farming them in casual PVP, which will show up as a bunch of extra ranked PVP wins on their stats (but won't actually give them any ranked PVP points). A defence win rate that high is usually a sign of this, rather than an actual high defence win rate in ranked. If they change their team a lot, it could be a mixture of both.